Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NEI/NIH)

What is AMD?

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disabling eye condition that causes gradual decline of central vision.1 AMD affects a central area of the retina known as the macula, which is responsible for sharp central vision required for everyday activities such as reading, watching television, driving and facial recognition. Although AMD does not usually lead to complete blindness (peripheral vision is maintained), loss of central vision may have a major impact on a person’s independence and quality of life.2

AMD is a complex disease and is thought to have several different causes. A number of genetic and environmental risk factors have been associated with the development of AMD. Non-modifiable risk factors are age (increasing), race (white European), sex (female), family history & genetics (first degree relative). Modifiable risk factors are smoking, diet (several eye health cookbooks have been written by professionals in the field), physical activity and hypertension.

It is generally thought that development and progression of AMD is caused by a complex interaction of metabolic, genetic and environmental risk factors; the mechanisms and interactions are not fully understood.

Risk Factors for AMDGenetic Factors and AMD

Symptoms of AMD

Early and Intermediate AMD

People with early and intermediate stages of AMD do not usually experience symptoms. Therefore, it is very important that regular eye examinations are performed in order to detect the early signs of AMD. These examinations also allow the detection of other eye diseases, many of which may also be painless and without obvious symptoms in their early stages (e.g. glaucoma).

Late AMD

Common symptoms relating to vision deterioration reported by people with late-stage AMD, either geographic atrophy (GA) or neovascular AMD (nvAMD) include:

Blurring of central vision/Loss of visual acuity (gradual or rapid onset) – reduced ability to see in detail (e.g. greater difficulty reading small print in newspaper or a reduction in reading rate). Tends to occur gradually in persons with GA, but can be rapid in people with nvAMD; this can affect one or both eyes. GA and nvAMD may occur alone, separately in each eye or simultaneously in the same eye.

Metamorphopsia – A type of distorted vision where straight lines in a grid appear wavy; this is a common symptom among people who have neovascular AMD. (The Amsler Grid is a useful tool for monitoring your central visual field and testing metamorphopsia.)

Blind spots (scotomas) in the central field of vision – an area of partial alteration in the field of vision consisting of a partially diminished or entirely degenerated visual acuity that is surrounded by a field of normal – or relatively well-preserved vision.

Reduced contrast sensitivity – difficulty seeing an image against a ‘similar’ background.

Delayed dark adaptation – difficulty adjusting when moving from bright to dimly lit environments.

FOR PROFESSIONALS

The symptoms associated with AMD vary widely between patients. In a recent study3 researchers found that images commonly used to represent AMD (a patch of distortion or blackness in central vision surrounded by a clear periphery) did not provide a realistic representation of people’s experiences. The findings have significant ramifications for individuals, as it may lead them to misunderstand the severity of their own condition and may in turn affect how people monitor their own disease progression. Additionally images used to educate the public about vision loss due to AMD are potentially misleading as they do not represent the lived experience. 

There is a need to develop more realistic images of the visual symptoms of AMD for both patient and public education.

Literature - Self-reported description of vision loss in AMD

Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NEI/NIH)

AMD diagnosis

AMD is a painless condition and people with the early and intermediate stages of the condition do not usually experience any symptoms. Regular (annual/biennial) eye examinations are recommended in order to detect the early signs of AMD. These examinations also allow the detection of other eye diseases, many of which may also be painless and without obvious symptoms in their early stages (e.g. glaucoma).

Definitive diagnosis of AMD relies on a dilated eye examination using imaging techniques typically undertaken in specialist ophthalmology clinics. It is important to note that visual acuity tests alone are not sufficient for the detection of AMD. This is because sight measured by the visual acuity test can remain unaffected, even in the presence of nvAMD or GA, if the central part of the retina is not affected by the condition. Therefore, it is essential that any person suspected of having AMD is referred to a specialist clinic for accurate diagnosis and follow-up.

Several retinal imaging techniques may be used by the ophthalmologist to diagnose and monitor patients with AMD in clinical practice. These non-invasive imaging techniques include Colour Fundus Photography (CFP), Fundus Auto-Fluorescence (FAF), Fluorescein Angiography, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and a very new technique called OCT angiography.

FOR PATIENTS & FAMILIES

To help you to manage your own care it is helpful to have an understanding of what you should expect in terms of care at each stage of the disease.

Guide to essential care for AMD

Several retinal imaging techniques may be used by the ophthalmologist to diagnose and monitor patients with AMD in clinical practice.

Retinal Imaging Techniques

FOR PROFESSIONALS

Recommendations relating to the eye disease screening vary between countries. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that everyone gets a baseline eye examination at age 40, the time when early signs of disease or changes in vision may occur. A baseline eye exam at 40 is a reminder to adults as they age to be aware of their eye health. It can help identify signs of eye disease at an early stage when many treatments can have the greatest impact on preserving vision. Follow-up eye examinations will be dependent upon overall health and results of the baseline examination. People 65 or older should have their eyes checked every year or two.

Stages of AMD

AMD is a progressive disease that primarily affects an area of the central retina called the macula, which is responsible for sharp focus central visual acuity.

AMD pathology is characterized by degenerative changes in the outer portion of the retina, photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch’s membrane, and the choriocapillaris, which ultimately lead to central vision loss in the later stages of the disease. The earliest visible sign of AMD during an eye exam is the appearance of yellowish deposits of an extracellular lipoprotein, called drusen, which accumulate underneath the retina, between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch’s membrane.1

Progression and severity of AMD can be classified as ‘early’ or ‘intermediate’ or ‘late’ based on the size of drusen and the presence of pigmentary abnormalities in the retina of the affected eye.4 

Early AMD is diagnosed based on the presence of medium-sized drusen (>63 and ≤125 μm), but is not usually associated with any loss of visual function or other symptoms. (Small drusen particles (≤63 μm) can appear in the retina as part of the normal aging process, and are not associated with an increased risk of progression to late-stage AMD.)

Intermediate AMD is characterised by the presence of large drusen (>125 μm), abnormalities in the retinal pigment, or both. Intermediate AMD also tends to be asymptomatic. People who develop intermediate AMD are at an increased risk of developing late-stage AMD.

Late-AMD, associated with central vision loss that occurs as a result of damage to the macula, can be classified into two types: 4

Geographic atrophy (GA) (also known as ‘dry’ or ‘non-exudative’ AMD) ) is characterised by the progressive, irreversible loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), photoreceptor cells, and underlying choriocapillaris layer of the macula, resulting in a decline in visual function.

Neovascular AMD (also known as ‘wet’ or ‘exudative’ AMD) is defined by growth and invasion of immature blood vessels from the underlying choroid into the retina. Leakage from these fragile blood vessels can cause build-up of blood and fluid under the retina leading to detachment of the RPE or retina and scarring.

Progression from early/intermediate- to late- AMD (GA and/or neovascular AMD) is a complex process. Some people progress quickly to late-stage AMD (either GA or neovascular AMD), whereas others may progress slowly over several years.5 The underlying mechanisms that cause an eye to develop GA versus neovascular AMD are not fully understood. No reliable genetic or environmental risk factors have been identified to predict whether a patient will develop one form or the other.6 Both types can occur simultaneously in the same eye, or simultaneously in different eyes; it has in fact been suggested that GA and neovascular AMD are not mutually exclusive diseases, but that they lie on the same disease continuum.7 Eyes developing both types may in fact be at a more advanced stage than either GA or neovascular AMD alone.

Depiction of the progression from an intact retina through development of drusen (early/intermediate AMD) to GA & nvAMD.

FOR PROFESSIONALS

Recent work has been undertaken to standardised terms and descriptions relating to staging of AMD – The Beckman Initiative for Macular Research Committee: AMD classification.4 Consensus was achieved in generating a basic clinical classification system based on fundus lesions assessed within 2 disc diameters of the fovea in persons older than 55 years. The committee agreed that a single term, age-related macular degeneration, should be used for the disease.

Beckaman Classification GuideLiterature - Clinical Classification of Age-related Macular Degeneration

Rehabilitation supports

In the early stages of vision loss many patients with AMD can manage very adequately with visual tasks. However, as sight worsens some adaptation is required. Patients should be referred to professionals such as rehabilitation specialists as early as possible. This allows individuals to be assessed for their needs and given practical support and advice. Low vision is strongly associated with a higher risk of falling, and patients benefit from guidance on orientation techniques and mobility training to help reduce this risk. Daily living skills can help people with a range of things including communication, safe food preparation, personal appearance, and handling medication. Appropriate support can help an individual to maintain their confidence and independence.

As sight worsens assistive devices may be necessary. Assistive devices can be as simple as a black felt tipped pen or as complicated as a voice recognition computer programme. Some devices are optical, using lenses and prisms, while others use the latest computer technology to enhance print or convert it into audio text. It is important to realise that no one assistive device can replace vision – to see objects in the distance as well as those up close, to see colours and in the dark, to detect depth, contrast and movement. For an assistive device to be successful three important steps need to be followed: accurate assessment, good choice of device and training in use of the device.

A practical application of common sense and imagination will also help maintain independence, including:

Illumination – spotlight work areas, use brighter bulbs.

Contrast – use coloured coasters or backgrounds.

Size – use larger and bolder text.

Tactile – use nail polish or hard setting putty to mark dials and devices.

Join your local vision loss group to keep up-to-date on developments with services and technologies. As technology develops it is expected that many more tools will become available in the years ahead to help you to maintain your independence.

FOR PATIENTS & FAMILIES

Rehabilitation services vary between countries and even within countries. What is universally true however is that it is important that rehabilitation services are identified and accessed as early as possible, before significant deterioration in sight is experienced. While some service providers offer a comprehensive service, in other cases more than one provider will be needed. Services may be made available via hospitals, universities, charitable organisations (NGOs) and state or commercial specialist service providers. Sources of information on local services include healthcare providers, NGOs (including blind organisations and Retina International), internet.

Low Vision Rehabilitation Services & Supports

VIAOPTA is a recently developed suite of mobile applications that have been developed to assist visually impaired people with their daily lives. These apps allow individuals to maintain their independence by assisting with daily activities, navigating your local region and recognising people and places using image analysis technology.

Therapeutic interventions

Early & Intermediate AMD

No therapy has been developed to treat early and/or intermediate AMD. Antioxidant and mineral supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of progression of early & intermediate AMD to late AMD (AREDS & AREDS2).8 Supplements containing vitamins C & E, zinc & copper and lutein & zeaxanthin are recommended.

Late AMD

Geographic Atrophy (GA) – No specific therapy has been developed to treat GA. The best available treatment for GA is provision of support and rehabilitation services to enable the individual to prolong their quality of life. Several potential therapies are being investigated for their suitability to treat Geographic Atrophy.

Neovascular AMDPhotodynamic Therapy and Laser photocoagulation for neovascular AMD have been available since the 1990s. However, more recently anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular AMD.  Anti-VEGF treatments are a group of medicines which reduce new blood vessel growth or oedema (swelling). There are a number of licensed anti-VEGF treatments on the market.

REFERENCES

  1. Holz FG, Strauss EC, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, van Lookeren Campagne M. Geographic atrophy: clinical features and potential therapeutic approaches. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(5): 1079-1091.
  2. Taylor DJ, Hobby AE, Binns AM, Crabb DP. How does age-related macular degeneration affect real-world visual ability and quality of life? A systematic review. BMJ open. 2016;6(12): e011504.
  3. Taylor DJ, Edwards LA, Binns AM & Crabb DP. Seeing it differently: self-reported description of vision loss in dry age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2017.
  1. Ferris FL, 3rd, Wilkinson CP, Bird A, Chakravarthy U, Chew E, Csaky K, et al. Clinical classification of age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(4): 844-851.
  2. Sardell RJ, Persad PJ, Pan SS, Whitehead P, Adams LD, Laux RA, et al. Progression Rate From Intermediate to Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Is Correlated With the Number of Risk Alleles at the CFH Locus. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2016;57(14): 6107-6115.
  3. Grob S, Luo J, Hughes G, Lee C, Zhou X, Lee J, et al. Genetic analysis of simultaneous geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularization. Eye. 2012;26(8): 1106-1113.
  1. Kaszubski P, Ben Ami T, Saade C, Smith RT. Geographic Atrophy and Choroidal Neovascularization in the Same Eye: A Review. Ophthalmic research. 2016;55(4): 185-193.
  2. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group, A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report No. 8.  Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119 (10) 1417- 1436.